• Name: Hafnium

  • Symbol: Hf

  • Number of Energy Levels: 6

  • Electrons on the outer energy level: 2

  • Atomic Number: 72

  • Atomic Mass: 178.49 Amu

  • Protons / Electrons: 72

  • Neutrons: 106

  • Density: 13.2 g/cm3

  • Classification: Transition Metal

Top 16 interesting facts about Hafnium

  • Hafnium was discovered in 1923 by Dirk Coster. Its name derives from the Latin word "Hafni" which is the ancient name of Copenhagen.
  • Hafnium's melting point is at 2150.0 C (2423.15 K, 3902.0 F) and its boiling point is at 5400.0 C (5673.15 K, 9752.0 F).
  • Hafnium is a silvery gray transition metal.
  • Hafnium is shiny and ductile metal that is resistant to corrosion.
  • Hafnium is not found freely in nature.
  • Hafnium is very similar to zirconium and it is usually found in zirconium minerals (zircon).
  • Separating hafnium from zirconium is one of the most difficult processes due to the similarities of these two elements.
  • The major producers of hafnium are Brazil, Malawi, and Australia.
  • Hafnium reacts with air forming a layer that prevents further corrosion.
  • Hafnium can sometimes ignite spontaneously in air.
  • There are 5 stable isotopes of hafnium: 176-Hf, 177-Hf, 178-Hf, 179-Hf, and 180-Hf.
  • Hafnium is a byproduct of zirconium production (more than 50%).
  • In the oxidation state of +4, hafnium forms mainly inorganic compounds.
  • Hafnium is mainly used in control rods for nuclear reactors.
  • Hafnium's other uses are: in different alloys with other metals, in microprocessors, and as electrode in plasma cutting.
  • Pure hafnium is not considered toxic but its compounds are.