# Caloric conduction

It is said that the air and water are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Maybe you can remember that from school. The term “conductor” refers strictly to the mode of transmission of heat by conduction and electrical field. Let’s take them one by one.

Heat is transmitted by conduction to those materials having particles that oscillate mechanically unidirectional, usually metals or alloys. If to the respective metals or alloys is induced a difference of potential, then the electric field created will cause the oscillation of electrons in only one direction until the difference of potential disappears.

In this case, through the metallic conductor will run a continuous or pulsed electrical power, which does not bear binary information. If it regularly changes its meaning, it is called alternating or sinusoidal (after the chart of the variation of intensity that has sinusoidal shape).

Metals, being good conductors of heat and electricity can not be electrified. To obtain electricity, always energy is consumed to create that potential difference, to be less electrons in one end of the conductor and more in the other end or in a particular part of the circuit. Only in this way there will be electric tension on the wire. This is the definition of the voltage: “the difference of potential between two points of the electrical circuit.”

Electric current is obtained only through electromagnetic induction because only this way it is efficient. Either rotate the metal frame around the magnet or the magnet around the metal frame, the energy which makes the electrons to oscillate in the metal frame, is the energy of human’s muscles that rotates the metal frame or the magnet.

The magnet has around it a magnetic field consisting of an infinite number of field lines. When these field lines intersect the metal, then the electrons oscillate, electric power (electricity intensity) is at maximum level when the magnet’s magnetic field lines are perpendicular to the frame and void when they are parallel to the frame.

The way of transmission of heat by conduction is also called transmitted through contact because only through the contact of two solid materials, usually metals or alloys conduction occurs.

The heat is transmitted through the mechanical oscillation of particles followed by collision, in sequential order. From everything I have written so far, it follows that all fluids (liquids and gases) are poorly conductive of heat and electricity, as particles that they are made of, have a very high mobility (liquids take the shape of the vessel they are in and gases occupy all the space around them) and moves in multiple directions.