# Heat, mechanical work, and magnetic field

I have had a discussion with some acquaintances (engineers) who told me that they have attended a presentation where a very well known company presented its infrared panels with negative ions and the presenter said that these infrared panels give more heat than the power consumption. My acquaintances said that it is not like I have said (the amount of heat given by radiator is based on energy consumption) and this kind of radiators can release more heat. These engineers also claim that these panels only produce negative ions. If engineers can say this kind of things then what should I expect from others?!

According to their thinking a part of the released heat comes out of nothing. It is well known that you can not get anything from nothing. I asked if they have heard of the law of conservation of electric charge. They replied affirmative. Then, how many negative ions are produced, as many positive ions are produced. I continued to explain.

The power is only one. It is measured in watts. But what is power? Mechanical work divided by time. They replied that the radiator stays fixed on the wall; it is not an engine to perform mechanical work. I explained patiently that physical fields perform mechanicaly when moving. What is mechanical work, force or displacement? Caution! Force has to move its point of application to perform mechanical work.

Energy, heat, and mechanical work have a common measurement unit: joule. What results from here? They are the same thing.

Heat is energy that under certain conditions behaves in a certain way.

Mechanical work is the explanation of heat at both microscopic and macroscopic level, but not only. Mechanical work also effectuates electromagnetic field when moving through vacuum, but in this situation there is no heat, because we have no substance.

In other words, heat is the energy perceived by people in multi directional oscillation of the particles of the substance. Only the mechanical work done by the multi directional microscopic particle oscillation is perceived as heat by people.

When a material point moves along a certain path, it performs mechanical work. Force with the application point in the material point moves along the trajectory. When a body, whose resultant of forces with origin in the center of gravity of the body, is moving then there is mechanical work. The center of gravity of a body is the result of the balanced forces of the same body, forces which are composed by the parallelogram rule or triangle rule.

The movement of application point of resultant force can be determined only referencing to the referential of the center of gravity. The same geometric point can be the origin of an infinity of referential that are moving uniform and rectilinear. If we stand on a moving escalator we do not perform mechanical work, but the escalator yes. We are in state of rest against our own referential and the escalator (which is also a referential) but we are in state of movement against the referential tree (which we can see it on the window).

If a body electrifies then around it is a stationary electric field whose field lines are oriented toward inside or outside the body, as electricity is positive or negative. The field is characterized by a vector quantity called the electric field strength. The field does not effectuate mechanical work. The field is also characterized by a scalar physical quantity called electric permittivity. Inside the conductors which electricity is passing through, there is an electric field, electric field that performs mechanical work. Electrons oscillate unidirectional around their equilibrium positions and transfer energy from one to another.

Speed of movement of the electric field in the conductor is the same as the speed of electromagnetic field in vacuum. The magnetic field of any magnet is stationary, only the one formed around a wire by the electrical current that pass through the wire changes its shape according on the shape of the conductor. The electric field can be both stationary and in motion and the electromagnetic field is just in movement. Electric permittivity depends on the environment in which the electrified body is placed and magnetic permeability of the magnetic field too, all depending on the environment.